Table 2

Core problems and potential solutions to address the language barriers to inclusion in paediatric emergency medicine research

ProblemsSolutions
Written translationUnpredictable nature of paediatric emergency departments makes it difficult to accommodate for all potential languages.
Time required to produce translated documents which have conceptual equivalence.
Ensuring conceptual equivalence of written translation.
Consider language needs at the planning stage with adequate Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) representation.
Language and linguistic assessment of study population. Use of research tools such as INCUDE and HIAT to assist planning.
Use of frameworks such as Brislin’s back translation model.
Verbal translationTimely access to qualified translators in an emergency setting.Opportunity for bilingual staff members to train in research consent.
Cautious consideration of the use of family members, ensuring NIHR guidance is followed.
BothNo universal standards for ensuring quality control across translation services.
Regional or cultural variations within a language.
Cost of translation services.
Clear universal standards for translators used in clinical research.
Co-production of work with community representation.
Use of research tools such as those provided by NIHR, at the study conceptualisation phase.
  • NIHR, National Institute for Health and Care Research.