Table 1

Brislin’s back translation model

Step 1Forward translation: a translation of the document from the language it was originally written into the new language of choice.
Step 2Backward translation: a second translator, without having seen the document in its original language, independently translates the document from the new language of choice back to the original language.
Step 3To measure accuracy the back-translated document is checked against the original document.
Step 4Any questionable items or errors in the back-translated version are identified. A different translator then independently translates these sections.
Step 5The process repeated until the back-translated document is shown to represent the original document accurately.