Table 1

Reframing safety: key elements of ‘Safety-II’5

Prevailing model of safety (’Safety-I’)‘Safety-II’
What is ‘safety’?A condition where as few things as possible go wrong.A condition where as many things as possible go right.
Safety focusFailure, harm and accidents.Everyday work, including success and failure.
Safety questionsWhat went wrong?
Why did it go wrong?
How can we prevent it from happening again?
What went right?
Why did it go right?
How can we do more of this in the future?