Table 1

Patient characteristics and outcomes of infants who received LISA

Total babiesn=50
Median gestation, weeks (range)31 (25–37)
Median birth weight, g (range)1490 (620–3840)
 Male29 (58%)
 Female21 (42%)
Median age at time of procedure (range)6.5 hours (0–51)
Type of respiratory support prior to LISA
 High flow44 (88%)
 Continuous positive airway pressure5 (10%)
 Bi-level positive airway pressure1 (2%)
Median pre-procedure oxygen requirement (FiO2) (range)0.4 (0.28–0.7)
Median post-procedure oxygen requirement (FiO2) (range)0.26 (0.21–0.45)
Median dose of surfactant, mg/kg (range)200 (107–308)
 Premedication (atropine and fentanyl)29 (58%)
 Non-pharmaceutical (swaddle±sucrose)21 (42%)
Use of videolaryngoscope30 (60%)
Team member performing LISA
 Tier 1 (ST1-3/SHO)16 (32%)
 ANNP/ACP10 (20%)
 Tier 2 (ST4-8/Registrar)21 (42%)
 Consultant3 (6%)
 Procedure taken over by a more senior colleague7 (14%)
Adverse events
 Apnoea requiring positive pressure ventilation7 (14%)
 Technical difficulties requiring >2 attempts3 (6%)
 Bradycardia2 (4%)
 Mild trauma2 (4%)
 Pneumomediastinum1 (2%)
 Minor pulmonary haemorrhage1 (2%)
Failure (requiring intubation within 48 hours post-LISA or inability to perform LISA procedure)10 (20%)
 Late intubation8 (16%)
 Technical2 (4%) converted to intubation
Babies requiring a second dose of surfactant5 (10%) (all via intubation, not LISA)
Chronic lung disease (oxygen requirement at 36 weeks’ corrected gestational age)8/45 (18%)*
  • *Babies >34 weeks excluded.

  • †Recorded 1–2 hours post-procedure.

  • FiO2, fractional inspired oxygen concentration; LISA, less invasive surfactant administration.