Table 3

Positive predictive values and likelihood ratios for clinical signs of meningitis

Clinical signPositive predictive values*Likelihood ratios of positive result*
Nuchal rigidity0.39 to 0.81.39 to 13.3
Kernig’s sign0.773.5 to 10.27
Brudzinski’s sign0.812.34 to 2.5
  • A quantitative summary of the likelihood of a diagnosis of meningitis given positive clinical signs.

  • *Predictive values and likelihood ratios derived from studies summarised in table 1.2 4–7