Clinical sign | Positive predictive values* | Likelihood ratios of positive result* |

Nuchal rigidity | 0.39 to 0.8 | 1.39 to 13.3 |

Kernig’s sign | 0.77 | 3.5 to 10.27 |

Brudzinski’s sign | 0.81 | 2.34 to 2.5 |

↵A quantitative summary of the likelihood of a diagnosis of meningitis given positive clinical signs.

*Predictive values and likelihood ratios derived from studies summarised in table 1.2 4–7