Table 1

Possible causes of sialorrhoea

Level of problemExamples
Increased saliva production—hypersialiaAnticonvulsants—especially clobazam and clonazepam
Antipsychotic medication
Nasal blockage—obligate nasal breathingAdenoid/tonsillar hypertrophy
Oral cavityDental malocclusion
Poor lip closure
Caries, gum disease, ulcers
Salivary gland epithelial tumours (rare!)
Isolated bulbar dysfunctionWorster Drought syndrome
Cranial nerve palsiesBell's palsy
“Static” generalised motor disorderSpastic quadriplegic or dystonic cerebral palsy
Acquired brain injuries
Progressive motor disorderJuvenile Parkinson's disease
NeurodevelopmentalCognitive and awareness difficulties—“oral sensory dysfunction”
Severe learning disability