Table 1

 Chronic lung disease: aetiological factors

• Prenatal factors
    – cytokine release (in utero infection)
    – genetic predisposition (including race, sex, etc)
    – gestation (degree of prematurity)
• Postnatal factors
    – mechanical ventilation (baro- and volutrauma)
    – air leak syndromes (including pulmonary interstitial emphysema)
    – oxygen toxicity (poor antioxidant capacity)
    – malnutrition (macro- and micronutrient deficiencies)
    – pulmonary oedema (excess fluid, patent ductus arteriosus)
    – infection