Table 3

 Differential diagnosis of migraine

Organic headache
• Post-traumatic
• Infections—for example, otitis media, dental infections, meningitis, sinusitis
• Post-seizure
• Pharmacological—for example, analgesics, caffeine, food additives
• Toxic (substance abuse–for example, marijuana and cocaine, carbon monoxide poisoning)
• Ophthalmological (refraction errors)
• Arthritis of the temporo-mandibular joint
• Vasculitis—for example, systemic lupus erythematosus
• Hypertension
• Tumours and other space occupying lesions
• Raised intracranial pressure—for example, benign intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation
• Low intracranial pressure (post-lumbar puncture, dural tear)
Vascular headache
• Cluster headache
• Intracranial bleed—for example post-traumatic, ruptured arteriovenous malformations, aneurysmal bleeding
• Venous sinus thrombosis
Non-organic headache
• Chronic episodic tension-type headache
• Chronic daily headache
• Depression