Proteomics is the study of a large number of proteins in biological systems. We aim to introduce the complex field to paediatricians and present some recent examples of applications to paediatric problems. Various approaches have been used to study proteomes. The current mainstay is tandem mass spectrometry of enzymatically digested proteins (‘bottom-up proteomics’), and we describe the experimental and computational approach further. Proteomics can offer advantages over transcriptomics by giving direct information about proteins rather than RNA; however, typically data are obtained at lower depth and the confident identification of mass spectra can be challenging. Proteomics frequently complements transcriptomics and other -omics. Used effectively, proteomics offers promise to help answer important clinical and biological questions.
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