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Child presenting with breathlessness 1 month after cardiac surgery
  1. Valentina Gesuete1,
  2. Simona Salis2,
  3. Giulia Gortani3,
  4. Egidio Barbi2,3
  1. 1 Cardiology Service, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS ’Burlo Garofolo' - Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  2. 2 School of Medicine, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  3. 3 Pediatric Emergency Department, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS ’Burlo Garofolo' - Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Valentina Gesuete, Cardiology Service, IRCCS materno infantile Burlo Garofolo, Trieste 34137, Italy; valegesuete{at}


QUESTIONS 1. What is your diagnosis?

  1. Atelectasis.

  2. Pneumothorax.

  3. Right pleural effusion.

  4. Pneumonia.


2. Considering the result of the chest X-ray and the clinical conditions, which treatment is required for this patient?

  1. Antibiotic treatment.

  2. Video-assisted thoracoscopy.

  3. Urgent thoracentesis.

  4. Medical treatment with diuretics and antibiotic.

3. Which additional investigations should be carried out?

  1. Lung and heart MRI scan.

  2. Cardiac evaluation with echocardiogram.

  3. Pulmonary CT.

  4. Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage.

4. Which is the most likely cause of the pleural effusion?

  1. Heart failure.

  2. Pulmonary infection.

  3. A+B.

  4. Damage to the thoracic duct.

Answers can be found on page 2.

  • cardiac surgery
  • cardiology
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  • Contributors Each author listed on the manuscript has seen and approved the submission of this version of the manuscript and takes full responsibility for the manuscript. VG: project development, data collection and management, manuscript writing. SS: data collection. GG: data collection. EB: project development, manuscript editing.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Parental/guardian consent obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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