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An infant with a large head (2.5 SDs above normal for weight and gender or above 99.6th centile for age) is a common clinical presentation. Usually, it is due to benign isolated macrocephaly or familial macrocephaly (FM) where some close family members are similarly affected1; neither condition requires any further intervention. However, there are a few important underlying causes the clinician needs to actively consider and investigate when indicated before reassuring parents. These considerations include whether there is any associated developmental disorder or suggestion of a syndromic association or evidence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP).
In most instances, a careful history and examination either clarifies the diagnosis; for example, an ex-preterm child developing hydrocephalus. In other instances, it provides pointers for further investigation and management, for example, arranging genetic tests in a child presenting with macrocephaly and multiple cafe au lait spots suggesting the possible diagnosis of neurofibromatosis (NF) Type 1.
The following considerations are helpful.
Is the head …
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