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Isoniazid prophylaxis started at 3–4 months of life does not prevent tuberculosis disease or infection in both HIV-infected and uninfected children

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Setting: South Africa and Botswana

Patients: The study looked at infants who were born to HIV-infected women. To be included in the study, the infants had to be between 91 and 120 days of life, not infected with or exposed to a case of tuberculosis, without other chronic illness, or immunosuppressed from an infection other than HIV.

A total of 1351 children were included in the analysis and were split into two groups based on their HIV status after testing: HIV positive and HIV negative (table 1).

Intervention: The infants in both groups were randomly assigned to receive either isoniazid at a daily dose of 10–20 mg/kg or placebo. The study drug was initiated four days into randomisation, and continued for 96 weeks in total. All HIV-infected children continued to have access to …

Correspondence to Dr Mildred Adaku Iro, Department of Paediatrics, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth PO6 3LY, UK; adakuiroh{at}

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.