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Fifteen-minute consultation: The prepubescent gender-diverse child: how to answer parents’ questions
  1. Ludovica Barbi1,
  2. Anna Roia2,
  3. Dora Cosentini2,
  4. Giulia Bresciani2,
  5. Lucia De Zen2,
  6. Federico Sandri2,
  7. Gianluca Tornese2,3
  1. 1 FHML, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  2. 2 Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy
  3. 3 Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Gianluca Tornese, Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy; gianluca.tornese{at}


Parents and caregivers may seek help with different questions or concerns on how to handle the diverse gender expressions of their children. Sometimes the issue may be evident while seeking medical advice for other concerns. Because of the many uncertainties around this topic, clinicians need to know what to say and what can be done to provide the best possible care for gender-diverse children.

  • Child Development
  • Mental health
  • Paediatrics
  • Primary Health Care

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  • Contributors LB, AR, DC, GB, LDZ, FS and GT wrote, reviewed and revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work.

  • Funding This work was supported by the Italian Ministry of Health, through the contribution given to the Institute for Maternal and Child Health IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy (RC 9/16).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.