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How to perform and interpret a middle cerebral artery transcranial Doppler examination in children at risk of brain injury
  1. Elisa Poletto1,
  2. Hari Krishnan Kanthimathinathan2,
  3. Zoltan Gyorgyi3
  1. 1 Division of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, San Bortolo Hospital of Vicenza, Vicenza, Italy
  2. 2 PICU, Birmingham Women’s and Children’s Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
  3. 3 Paediatric Critical Care Unit, Royal Hospital for Children and Young People, Edinburgh, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Zoltan Gyorgyi, Paediatric Critical Care Unit, Royal Hospital for Children and Young People, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK; zoltan.gyorgyi{at}


Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound is a non-invasive neuromonitoring technique that falls under the umbrella of point-of-care ultrasound. In this article, we provide a primer to encourage clinicians to perform TCD examinations and to aid them with accurately interpreting the scans. We focus on the middle cerebral artery waveforms and use traumatic brain injury as a model for brain insult.

  • Intensive Care Units, Paediatric
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
  • Paediatric Emergency Medicine
  • Neurosurgery
  • Paediatrics

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  • Twitter @Dr_Hari_Krishna, @drZoltanGyorgyi

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the conceptualisation and writing of the manuscript equally. Colour figures and the infographic were created by ZG. ZG is responsible for the overall content as the guarantor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.