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Diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in children
  1. Atessa Bahadori1,
  2. Nicole Ritz2,3,4,
  3. Petra Zimmermann3,5,6,7
  1. 1 Pediatric Specialties Division, Department of Pediatrics, Gynecology, and Obstetrics, University Hospitals Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
  2. 2 Mycobacterial and Migrant Health Research, University Children’s Hospital Basel and Department for Clinical Research, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
  3. 3 Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  4. 4 Infectious Diseases Unit, Children’s Hospital Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland
  5. 5 Department of Community Health, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland
  6. 6 Infectious Diseases Research Group, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
  7. 7 Department of Paediatrics, Fribourg Hospital, Fribourg, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Petra Zimmermann, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg 41, 1700, Switzerland; petra.zimmermann{at}


Lyme disease is a zoonotic infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato which is transmitted to humans mainly by tick bites. The global incidence of Lyme disease is rising, and children are more frequently affected. The disease can manifest in various organs causing non-specific symptoms. The lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests makes the management of Lyme disease challenging. This article offers up-to-date clinical algorithms for the management of children with suspected or diagnosed Lyme disease.

  • Infectious Disease Medicine
  • Microbiology
  • Neurology
  • Paediatrics

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  • Contributors AB and PZ drafted and revised the paper and designed the algorithms. NR revised the paper and algorithms. All authors contributed to the manuscript and read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.