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Immediate kangaroo care significantly reduces mortality at 28 days for low-birthweight infants
  1. Sarah Farquharson
  1. Department of Neonatology, Royal Hospital for Children, Glasgow, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sarah Farquharson, Neonatal Department, Royal Hospital for Children, 1345 Govan Road, Glasgow, G51 4TF, UK; sarah.farquharson{at}

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Design: An international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

Aim: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of immediate initiation of continuous kangaroo care following delivery in low-birthweight infants.

Setting: Five tertiary hospitals in Ghana, India, Malawi, Nigeria and Tanzania.

Patients: Infants with a birth weight between 1.0 kg and 1.799 kg, regardless of gestational age.

Allocation: Randomisation performed via computer-generated blocks.

Blinding: Unblinded due to the nature of the intervention.

Intervention: Immediate kangaroo mother care (KMC) care following delivery: continuous skin-to-skin started immediately following delivery before infant stabilisation; n=1609 infants.

Control: Conventional KMC: intermittent, brief skin-to-skin once infant at least 24 hours old after …

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  • Review of article World Health Organization (WHO) Immediate Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) Study Group. Immediate “Kangaroo Mother Care” and Survival of Infants with Low Birth Weight. N Engl J Med 2021;384:2028–38

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.