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Fifteen-minute consultation: Cardiac murmurs in the Newborn Infant Physical Examination (NIPE)


The finding of a cardiac murmur on the initial newborn examination is common but may be a source of anxiety for practitioners due to worries about missing critical congenital heart defects (CHDs). This article aims to provide an approach to this common finding, in particular, reviewing the evidence base behind features of the history, examination and subsequent non-specialist investigations which may increase the likelihood of CHDs. The aim of this structured approach is to give clinicians confidence in dealing with this common clinical finding, to be able to pick out those infants most at risk of having critical CHDs.

  • cardiology
  • neonatology

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