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Fifteen-minute consultation: how to identify and treat children with acute kidney injury

Abstract

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is under-recognised in children and neonates. It is associated with increased mortality and morbidity along with an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease in adulthood. It is important that paediatricians are able to recognise AKI quickly, enabling prompt treatment of reversible causes. In this article, we demonstrate an approach to recognising paediatric AKI, cessation of nephrotoxic medication, appropriate investigations and the importance of accurately assessing fluid status. The mainstay of treatment is attempting to mimic the kidneys ability to provide electrolyte and fluid homeostasis; this requires close observation and careful fluid management. We discuss referral to paediatric nephrology and the importance of long-term follow-up. We present an approach to AKI through case-presentation.

  • nephrology
  • nursing care
  • pharmacology
  • biochemistry

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