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Fifteen-minute consultation: how to identify and treat children with acute kidney injury
  1. Maura Scott,
  2. Grace McCall
  1. Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast, Northern Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Maura Scott, Department of Paediatric Nephrology, Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast BT12 6BA, UK; maurascott{at}


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is under-recognised in children and neonates. It is associated with increased mortality and morbidity along with an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease in adulthood. It is important that paediatricians are able to recognise AKI quickly, enabling prompt treatment of reversible causes. In this article, we demonstrate an approach to recognising paediatric AKI, cessation of nephrotoxic medication, appropriate investigations and the importance of accurately assessing fluid status. The mainstay of treatment is attempting to mimic the kidneys ability to provide electrolyte and fluid homeostasis; this requires close observation and careful fluid management. We discuss referral to paediatric nephrology and the importance of long-term follow-up. We present an approach to AKI through case-presentation.

  • nephrology
  • nursing care
  • pharmacology
  • biochemistry

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  • Contributors MS and GM wrote and edited the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.