Dystonia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder characterised by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal movements, postures or both. Dystonia is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. Dystonia is often under-recognised in children, particularly in cerebral palsy, and frequently coexists with spasticity. This guide aims to simplify the approach to diagnosis, investigation and treatment of childhood-onset dystonia. The principle of treatment is similar regardless of the underlying aetiology: identification of potential triggers and consideration of both pharmacological and surgical options.
- movement disorder
- cerebral palsy
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Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.