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How to… collect urine samples from young children
  1. Jonathan Kaufman1,2,3
  1. 1 Department of General Practice Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2 Department of General Paediatrics, Sunshine Hospital, St Albans, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3 Health Services Research Group, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jonathan Kaufman, Department of General Practice Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010, Australia; jkaufman{at}


Urine samples are commonly collected from young children to diagnose or exclude urinary tract infections, but collection from precontinent children is challenging. Each collection method has advantages and limitations. Non-invasive methods (urine pads, bags, clean catch) are convenient but can be time-consuming and are limited by sample contamination. Voiding stimulation methods (bladder-lumbar stimulation, Quick-Wee) can expedite clean catch collection. Invasive methods (catheter, suprapubic aspiration) can be more reliable, but require expertise to perform and cause pain for the child. This article reviews each collection method, and describes collection procedures, indications and strategies to optimise success and reduce contamination.

  • general paediatrics
  • voiding stimulation

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  • Funding JK is supported in part by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship, and Melbourne Children’s Postgraduate Health Research Scholarship.

  • Competing interests JK is the lead author of previous studies for the Quick-Wee method, which is included in this review.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Republishing keywords: urine specimen collection, infant, urinary tract infection, voiding stimulation, paediatrics

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.