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Answers to Illuminations
  1. Helen Williams
  1. Correspondence to Dr Helen Williams, Radiology Department, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK; helen.williams{at}

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Chiari II (sometimes called Arnold-Chiari II) malformation is a complex hindbrain malformation which is associated with a NTD closure or spina bifida, most commonly a lumbar myelomeningocele. Many patients with NTD such as myelomeningocele are diagnosed antenatally; myelomeningocele may be detected as early as 10 weeks gestation and the associated intracranial abnormalities from 12 weeks. On antenatal ultrasound there …

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  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.