Displaying 1-10 letters out of 91 published
Toe walking in infancyI read with interest Sivaramakrishnan et al's structured approach to a child with toe walking . Various levels of contexts such as parenting, maternal education, poverty and social networks interact with each other and with genetic expression to create long-lasting consequences for development [2,3]. Sometimes, single or isolated negative environmental factors may make a major contribution to developmental problems with most negative influence occurring in infancy. Here, we discussed two infants without any underlying medical condition who walk on their toes. Case 1: A 18-month-old girl comes with delay the attainment of standing and independent walking. Her perinatal and family history was unremarkable. Her antropometric measurements were all appropriate for his age. Her Denver II was normal at 9 months of age, however, gross motor development was abnormal at 18 months. While the infant was kept standing with holding her arms, she jumped continuously or she did toe walking and she couldn't stand alone. Further history revealed that she had sat on "doorway jumper" as a baby-sitter, 2-3 hours a day for 6 months. Then, parents were urged not to use jumper and put their infant on carpet to crawl and creep. The infant begin to walk alone within three months. Case 2: A 21-month-old boy, presented to our center with toe walking. Her delivery and neonatal-infant course were uneventful. There was no positive family history. He achieved gait at 13 months and walked independently at 16 months. On physical examination weight, height and head circumference were all appropriate for his age. Physical examination revealed intermittent toe walking. His Denver II Test was normal. Specific history revealed that he used a baby walker between 9 and 15 months of age and the infant begin to walk predominantly on the forefoot at 16 months of age. Parents was reassured that it was likely to resolve spontaneously. We advised parents to play "heel down, squate, pick a ball up, stand up". Toe walking was corrected at 23 months of age. The American Association of Pe?diatrics advice against the use of baby walker due to the high number of accidents and the possible delay of gait acquisition related to its use . This is the first report about jumper and delay the attainment of standing. If clinician didn't ask these environmental risk factors, unnecessary analysis, misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment could be done. We would thus like to emphasize that a child with toe walking should also be assessed for baby walker or jumper. Competing interests: None. References 1. Sivaramakrishnan S, Seal A. Fifteen-minute consultation: A child with toe walking. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2015 Apr 8. pii: edpract-2014-307852. 2. Lagstrom H, Rautava P, Kaljonen A, et al. Cohort profile: Steps to the healthy development and well-being of children (the STEPS Study). Int J Epidemiol 2013;42:1273-84. 3. Yalcin SS, Yurdakok K, Tezel B, et al. Family and infant characteristics in relation to age at walking in Turkey. Turk J Pediatr 2012;54:260-8. 4. American Academy of Pediatrics; Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Injuries associated with infant walkers. Pediatrics 2001;108:790-2.
Conflict of Interest:
The Wiggle Sign
Dear Editor, We were interested to read the article by Parige and Power entitled, 'A chest x-ray that doesn't look right'. (Archives of Disease in Childhood - Education and Practice Edition 2014; 99: 72). This article described extravasation of TPN from a PICC line resulting in a pleural effusion. Our attention was drawn to the initial 'check x-ray' which identified what we refer to locally as the "wiggle sign". The "wiggle sign" refers to an undulating path taken by a malpositioned PICC line.
The potential complications following insertion of a PICC line are well known including infection, thrombosis, catheter breakdown and malposition. The x-ray should show the catheter following a smooth course. The "wiggle' sign" as the name implies, is when the catheter has a tortuous appearance, suggesting that the distal end is not in the desired anatomical position. In this situation we believe that the distal end has become impacted after entering a smaller vessel or lodging against another structure.
Given the significant morbidity and mortality that is associated with the incorrect placement of a PICC line, our policy over the past 3 years is to remove all lines if there is a positive "wiggle sign". It is our impression that this sign is not widely recognised in neonatal units and we feel a heightened awareness may help reduce the sequelae post PICC insertion. We would recommend the removal of a PICC line if a positive "wiggle sign" is demonstrated.
Conflict of Interest:
There is an association between herpes simplex encephalitis and anti-NMDAR antibodies
We read with interest the review by Le Doare et al. discussing the presentation and management of neonatal and childhood herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). The article nicely outlines the importance of timely treatment of this potentially catastrophic infection. The authors have provided practical advice that is applicable for many of the challenges that clinicians might be faced with.
Although they mentioned the possibility of autoimmune encephalitis following HSE, it is important to emphasise this likelihood. More specifically, there is growing evidence to show an association between HSE and subsequent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibody encephalitis. The NMDAR is a type of glutamate receptor found throughout the brain. Its role in autoimmune encephalitis has only been recently described by Dalmau et al in 2007 (1) as a paraneoplastic phenomenon leading to autoimmune encephalitis, although the presence of a causative tumour is less likely in younger patients (2).
Pruss et al described the presence of NMDAR antibodies occurring in the course of 30% of individuals with HSE (3). In a paediatric sample, 7 out of 20 individuals (35%) relapsed and 3 out of those 7 patients were found to be NMDAR antibodies positive (4). This highlights the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients presenting with a possible relapse of HSE or even in patients not responding to appropriate antiviral therapy. Common symptoms may include a movement disorder, seizures and encephalopathy. Antibodies can be tested in serum and CSF specimens.
Early recognition and referral of autoimmune encephalitis of this entity is paramount as early aggressive immunotherapy can lead to good outcomes (5).
1. Dalmau J, Tuzun E and Wu H et al. Paraneoplastic anti-N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian teratoma. Ann Neurol 2007; 6(1): 25-36 2. Florance NR, Davis RL, Lam C et al. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis in children and adolescents. Ann Neurol 2009; 66(1): 11-8 3. Pruss H, Finke C, Holtje M et al. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in herpes simplex encephalitis. Ann Neurol 2012; 72(6): 902-911 4. Hacohen U, Deiva K, Pettingill P et al. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies in post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis neurological relapse. Mov Disord. 2014; 29 (1): 90-96 5. Titulaer M, McCracken L, Gabilondo I et al. Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an observational cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2013; 12(2): 157-165
Conflict of Interest:
Properly randomised trial of tongue tie division is needed!
The paper cites various studies but in only one is the placebo effect studied it seems and it found that almost half the mothers said that feeding was improved. The inference is that almost 50% of the treated children did not require the procedure and so have been subjected to a surgical procedure on one of the most sensitive organs in the body un- necessarily.
Until the placebo effect is fully investigated in the division of tongue tie, is it ethical to continue to perform a surgical procedure on an infant for the comfort of a third party, even if that is the mother? I would strongly suggest not. Perhaps a look at a psychological intervention with the mother would be more appropriate as there appears to be such a strong placebo effect?
Conflict of Interest:
Prenatal and neonatal paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk for ADHD and asthma.
Dr. Catherine Williams argues against and Dr. Damian Roland for using antipyretics in feverish children (Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2014;99:158-159) but they do not mention that paracetamol may be a risk factor for ADHD and asthma.
In the last two years, an animal study1, two cohort studies2 3, and an ecologic study4 have presented evidence for an increased risk of disturbed neuropsychiatric development after prenatal or neonatal exposure to paracetamol.
In a very large randomized, controlled trial, asthmatic children with an acute respiratory infection who used paracetamol needed more outpatient asthma visits compared to those on ibuprofen5. McBride6 pointed out that many observations suggest a causative association between acetaminophen and asthma: (1) the strength of the association; (2) the consistency across geography, culture, and age; (3) the dose-response relationship; (4) the coincidence of increasing asthma prevalence and increasing acetaminophen use; (5) no other abrupt environmental change that could explain this increase in asthma morbidity; (6) the relationship between per-capita sales of acetaminophen and asthma morbidity across countries; and (7) the biologically plausible mechanism of glutathione depletion in airway mucosa.
It is not true that there is "absence of evidence of harm" of antipyretics. Ibuprofen has been less studied and may or may not be safer than paracetamol after 6 months of age. Given the small benefits of antipyretics, my conclusion is that paracetamol could be used by pregnant women, infants and children for acute pain (benefit probably outweighs harm) but not for fever (benefit close to nil).
References 1. Viberg H, Eriksson P, Gordh T, et al. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice. Toxicol Sci. 2013 Dec 21. 2. Brandlistuen RE, Ystrom E, Nulman I, et al. Prenatal paracetamol exposure and child neurodevelopment: a sibling-controlled cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec;42(6):1702-13. 3. Liew Z, Ritz B, Rebordosa C, et al. Acetaminophen use during pregnancy, behavioral problems, and hyperkinetic disorders. JAMA Pediatr 2014 Feb 24 [Epub ahead of print]. 4. Bauer AZ, Kriebel D. Prenatal and perinatal analgesic exposure and autism: an ecological link. Environmental Health 2013 12:41. 5. Lesko SM, Louik C, Vezina RM, et al. Asthma morbidity after the short- term use of ibuprofen in children. Pediatrics. 2002 Feb;109(2):E20. 6. McBride JT. The Association of Acetaminophen and Asthma Prevalence and Severity. Pediatrics 2011;128:1181-1185.
Conflict of Interest:
I have been editor, coauthor or peer reviewer for Swedish national clinical guidelines for infections in children. These guidelines recommend less use of antipyretics, especially to infants younger than 6 months.
Re: Viable alternatives to Toddler Taming
Thank you for your letter and the many alternative recommended books, it is a fascinating topic. My opinions were mainly personal and parenting styles are a personal choice and differ greatly. I would however wish to reply firstly to your comments on the 'controlled crying' technique. This is not 'prolonged, unrelieved stress', it is a well researched technique of managing sleep behaviours where the baby learns to ' self settle', an essential tool in becoming independent from one's parent. Poor sleep leads to many problems for parents and children and this technique works but must be used in a 'controlled' way. Many parents choose not to use it. The 'rope trick' is quirky but again it is a safe behavioural approach to moving a child from a cot into a bed with support from the parent from outside the room. A stair gate works in a similar way to stop children falling down stairs but can be easily scaled at this later age. I think most parents hope to produce loved, confident and independent children and there are many ways to do this. I would contest however that as an adult parent at times this must involve exerting your will over the child's, especially when their or another's safety is at risk. I think the most important thing when we as parents make our choices and give advice on parenting is that the child's best interests are at heart and that the techniques are safe and if possible evidence based.
Conflict of Interest:
Viable alternatives to Toddler Taming
I read with interest Deborah Shanks' article on the book Toddler Taming by Christopher Green (Vermilion, 2006). Senior colleagues recommended that I read this book during my community paediatric placement, and several of my peers also told me they found it useful both personally and professionally.
I would like to offer an alternative for those who, like me, seek gentler, more compassionate parenting methods, and would prefer to recommend these to patients too. Happily, many excellent books exist which address this need and the evidence in support of its application.
Controlled crying may be effective in achieving the desired outcome, but if it works by inducing a state of learned helplessness following prolonged, unrelieved distress, then it surely cannot be recommended.
In her well researched and extensively referenced book Why Love Matters (Routledge, 2004), Sue Gerhardt, a psychoanalytic psychotherapist and founder of the Oxford Parent Infant Project (1), comments in her chapter Corrosive Cortisol that (p.66-73): "the stress response system is affected by how much early stress it has to deal with, and how well the system is helped to recover [...] a well-resourced and well-regulated infant becomes a child and adult who can regulate himself or herself well. [...]Probably the most stressful experience of all for a baby or toddler is to be separated from his or her mother or caregiver, the person who is supposed to keep him or her alive. "
A more readable alternative with plenty of photographs and diagrams is child psychotherapist Margot Sunderland's What Every Parent Needs to Know: The Remarkable Effects of Love, Nurture and Play on Your Child's Development (Dorling Kindersley, 2006). In this she explains (p.38-42) how periods of prolonged, uncomforted distress can develop an over-sensitive stress-response system, resulting in a constant sense of threat and anxiety in later life, with the associated potential for depression, addictive behaviours and stress-related physical illness.
Our children are not animals to be tamed. They are human beings with valid feelings and needs. However difficult it may be (I am the parent of three-year-old twins: I know how difficult it can be), it remains the responsibility of parents to consider and respond promptly to those feelings and needs, day and night. Issues of maternal isolation within the nuclear family in our western culture are clearly relevant here, but beyond the scope of this letter.
In addition the conflict between healthcare professionals and those advocating attachment parenting styles as regards the issue of co-sleeping and the risk of infant death must be noted. The imperative to put babies to sleep on their backs in their own cots, which goes against the instincts of both mothers and babies, results in crying babies and exhausted parents, and when help is sought from doctors there may be a strong felt pressure to supply a functional solution. Bedside co-sleepers, or a cot next to the parents' bed are safe alternatives to full co- sleeping that enable a baby's needs to be met to a far greater extent than if they are put to sleep in the next room. For older children full or partial co-sleeping represents a viable option, and toddlers may prefer to sleep in their parents' bedroom for some time.
Nonviolent Communication: A Language of Life (Puddledancer Press 2003), and its companion title Raising Children Compassionately: Parenting the Nonviolent Communication Way (Puddledancer Press 2005), by Marshall B. Rosenberg PhD offers a practical framework for approaching a multitude of parenting issues, and is also a useful tool for positive communication in clinical settings. In his introduction to the latter, Rosenberg comments (p.1): "I'd first like to call your attention to the danger of the word "child", if we allow it to apply a different quality of respect than we would give to someone who is not labeled a child."
Imprisoning children in their bedrooms (the 'rope trick') solely because they wish to leave and their parents or carers do not want them to, is an example of one human being exerting their will over another by means of force (to be distinguished from the protective use of force that is sometimes necessary to prevent an individual from causing harm to themselves or others), and by virtue of their greater size and strength. Such behaviour would likely be illegal were it perpetrated on another adult, and would certainly constitute an infringement of their basic human rights.
In her book Raising Our Children, Raising Ourselves (Book Publishers Network, 2005), Naomi Aldort PhD offers an alternative to commonly taught coercive parenting practices, stating that (p.xiv-xv): "Most parents already know how to control children gently; what we don't know is how NOT to control them and live in peace and joy with them. We know such gentle controls as natural consequences, an agreed-upon "non-punitive" timeout, engaging cooperation, bribes, and praise. Yet obedience, compliance, and even engaged co-operation mean the child succumbs to the will of the adult, even if she seems content to do so (because she wants your love and she is relieved to earn it). [...] An autonomous child, whose life flows in her direction, acts productively because she wants to. [...] [...] giving up her will is the cause of most of the difficulties with children.
1. Oxford Parent Infant Project: http://www.oxpip.org.uk/ Accessed on 25th May 2014.
Conflict of Interest:
Duration of Prolonged Rupture of Membranes for Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis
Dear Sir, We would like to draw your attention to an apparent inconsistency in two related guidelines published by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), in response to your recent review article of the NICE guideline on antibiotics for early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) . Maternal prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM) before delivery is a commonly used risk-factor to suspect EONS. The duration of rupture of membranes, for it to be termed "prolonged", is controversial. Most published studies have chosen "candidate" cut-off times from 12 - 24 hours, with no "ideal" study looking at the relationship between duration of membrane rupture and subsequent neonatal infection. NICE have recently published clinical guidelines (CG149) for the management of newborn infants with EONS . While this guideline clearly defines PROM for preterm infants as that lasting for greater than 18 hours, they have not done so for term infants. Instead, they have referred clinicians to the guideline "Intra-partum care: Care of healthy women and children during childbirth" (CG55) . CG55 suggests that membranes need to be ruptured for greater than 24 hours at term before being called prolonged.
This apparent difference in definition of PROM between preterm and term infants is unprecedented in the neonatal literature. All comparable national clinical guidelines [4,5] and neonatal textbooks have a single time-threshold to define PROM at all gestations. To minimise errors and for operational ease, a single definition for both term and preterm infants would be preferable. In view of the above, we urge NICE to clarify this inconsistency in the guidelines. We would also like to invite comments from neonatal colleagues regarding their interpretation and implementation of these guidelines. We propose that 18 hours be the accepted cut-off for infants of all gestations, as supported by your recent review of CG 149 .
References 1. Caffrey Osvald E, Prentice P (2014) NICE clinical guideline: antibiotics for the prevention and treatment of early-onset neonatal infection. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 99: 98-100. 2. NICE (2012) Antibiotics for early-onset neonatal infection CG149. NICE clinical guideline. Manchester: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. pp. 40. 3. NICE (2007) Intrapartum care. NICE clinical guideline. Manchester: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. pp. 69. 4. Verani JR, McGee L, Schrag SJ (2010) Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease--revised guidelines from CDC, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 59: 1-36. 5. Money D, Allen VM (2013) The prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 35: 939-951.
Conflict of Interest:
Pulse oximetry in Children - consider variant haemoglobin.
We read with interest the recent review by Sinha et al regarding physiological background, technological basis and limitations of pulse oximetry. The factors listed by the authors that may affect the accuracy of pulse oximetry include motion artifact, inadequate perfusion, nail polish, and high-ambient infrared light.
We would like to add to that list structural variants of haemoglobin. Over 1,000 variant haemoglobins have been described , and while the majority are not associated with abnormal SpO2 readings, a reduced SpO2 may in some instances be the main finding associated with variant haemoglobin. Variant haemoglobins with low SpO2 as measured by pulse oximetry may be associated with either reduced SaO2 or normal SaO2, as measured by arterial blood gas analysis, as reviewed by Verhovsek et al .
The finding of an unexplained reduced SpO2 can give rise to extensive cardiopulmonary investigations. Diagnosis of variant hemoglobin should be considered early on in the investigation of patients who are found to have unexpectedly low oxygen saturation but do not have clinical evidence of cardiopulmonary disease. Arterial blood gas analysis (which may in some cases of variant haemoglobin show a normal SaO2) or the simple expedient of carrying out pulse oximetry on parents (as haemoglobin variants are autosomally transmitted) may direct investigations towards a haemoglobin variant and spare the patient unnecessary cardiopulmonary investigations. Furthermore, with the increasing recommendations for use of pulse oximetry as a screening tool for detecting congenital heart disease , it is worth remembering haemoglobin variants as potential cause of unexplained low SpO2.
Conflict of Interest:
Let`s not forget CSF lactate
The authors have done an impressive task by taking us through the physiological and biochemical basis and the clinical value of serum/blood lactate. However, I was hopeful that they would touch on CSF lactate as an important investigation tool, not only useful for paediatric neurologists but for general paediatricians alike.
Lumbar puncture (LP) is commonly performed as part of the evaluation process of a child with suspected meningitis. In two meta-analyses, elevated CSF lactate was found to be a good indicator that can differentiate between bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis.(1) Interestingly, its diagnostic accuracy was better than CSF white cell count, glucose and protein.(1) The test is cheap, widely-available and the result is usually available by the time you get your other biochemical results back. A word of caution though: the sensitivity of the test declines significantly in those who had antibiotics pre-treatment.
Other less common causes of elevated CSF lactate include: encephalitis, other cerebral inflammatory conditions, mitochondrial diseases, Menkes disease, LP within 72 hrs after a seizure (2), biotinidase deficiency and stroke.(2)
References: 1. Brouwer MC, Thwaites GE, Tunkel AR, et al. Dilemmas in the diagnosis of acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis. Lancet 2012;10;380(9854):1684-92.
2. Chow SL, Rooney ZJ, Cleary MA, et al. The significance of elevated CSF lactate. Arch Dis Child 2005;90:1188-1189.
Conflict of Interest:
Register for free content
This recent issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of ADC Education & Practice.
View free sample issue >>
Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.