Table 1

Alterations in gut microbiota exert an influence on organ systems in the body leading to disease

OrganExamples of diseases linked with altered microbiotaMicrobiota-mediated changesReferences
BrainAutism spectrum disorderAbundance of bacterial toxins
Disrupted fermentation
9, 25
Cystic fibrosis
Reduced immunological tolerance
Altered gene expression
11, 12, 21, 23, 24
HeartCardiovascular diseaseProduction of proinflammatory metabolites13
PancreasType 1 and type 2 diabetesReduced insulin sensitivity8
LiverNon-alcoholic fatty liver diseaseAltered bile acid metabolism10
Adipose tissueMetabolic syndrome
Reduced intestinal gluconeogenesis
Insulin resistance
8, 14, 15
Gastrointestinal tractInflammatory bowel syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome
Gut infections
Dysregulated immune response
Altered mucosal barrier
17–20, 22
Allergic diseases
Increased pathogenic strains
Dysregulated immune response