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Answers to the following quiz questions can be found on page ▪▪.
Select one best answer from the following:
Neurofibromatosis type 1
Multiple lentigenes syndrome (LEOPARD)
Nevus of Ito (nevus fuscoceruleus acromiodeltoideus)
Giant congenital melanocytic nevus
Case 1: A 5-year-old boy presents with a birthmark in his right axilla (figure 1). His mother states that she first noticed a faint brown birthmark in that area when he was an infant. However, she is concerned because more and more darker ‘brown spots’ have started to appear within the original birthmark over the past year. The patient is in excellent health and has no significant personal or family medical history. He is the only person in the family with this type of birthmark. On physical examination, there is a unilateral 10×10 cm tan patch with multiple superimposed 1–3 mm brown macules and papules. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Case 2: A 4-month-old girl presents for a check-up. Her guardian states that the baby has been feeding well and has no other concerns. On physical examination, there are six well-demarcated tan-brown patches distributed on the chest, abdomen and back (figure 2). These macules range in size from 6 to 11 mm. There are no other significant findings. As she is in foster care, no birth or family history is available. The child has thus far met all of her developmental milestones and is in the 50th percentile for height, weight and head circumference. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Case 3: An 18-month-old girl presents with a large tan-brown birthmark (figure 3). Her father states that he noticed it sometime during the first few weeks after birth. He does not think the lesion is changing or growing. The child has reached all of her developmental milestones and has not had any medical issues. There is no history of genetic diseases or health issues in the family. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Contributors KCL was involved in drafting the manuscript, and PAL revised and supervised the manuscript.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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