Isoniazid prophylaxis started at 3–4 months of life does not prevent tuberculosis disease or infection in both HIV-infected and uninfected children
Setting: South Africa and Botswana
Patients: The study looked at infants who were born to HIV-infected women. To be included in the study, the infants had to be between 91 and 120 days of life, not infected with or exposed to a case of tuberculosis, without other chronic illness, or immunosuppressed from an infection other than HIV.
A total of 1351 children were included in the analysis and were split into two groups based on their HIV status after testing: HIV positive and HIV negative (table 1).
Intervention: The infants in both groups were randomly assigned to receive either isoniazid at a daily dose of 10–20 mg/kg or placebo. The study drug was initiated four days into randomisation, and continued for 96 weeks in total. All HIV-infected children continued to have access to …
Correspondence to Dr Mildred Adaku Iro, Department of Paediatrics, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth PO6 3LY, UK;